MASSIVE warm welcome!
We (Adrianne & David) are ORGANIC FAIRTRADE single origin coffee roasters, with an incredible love of sharing knowledge.  Based at ‘TOTOKA’ organic urban farm Adelaide Hills, we roast ‘TUF COFFEE’!
We are a standout coffee wholesaler due to combining all our life experiences and passionately using it in all aspects COFFEE!  We are proud that within South Australia we have a wonderful selection of coffee roasters. We are a family of 5 passionate about local produce, small business, preserving our stunning native habitat and ALL THINGS COFFEE!
Our passion for coffee started when both Adrianne and David worked in CBD in the education department and police, frequenting the gorgeous ‘Kappy’s and Wright’ sadly no longer in the stunning Flinders Street building. The open vintage roaster was often operated by an elderly gentleman and the aroma turned Adrianne, whom did not drink coffee, curious and thus her hand into a coffee connoisseur. David already a coffee lover, commenced a journey into single origins and the profiles.
From here they commenced their entrepreneur journey and opened a new bakehouse ‘BAKERS EDGE’ in Henley Square 2006, serving ‘Adelaide Hills Coffee Roasters’ Coffee learning a wealth of info about coffee from crop to cup including latte art, from both Helen and Chris! When we moved our bakehouse in 2011 to a larger site at West Beach, we knew a roastery and cafe was a must, developing a standout open viewing bakehouse, coffee roastery AND mini art gallery all in one! After learning from a couple gorgeous souls all things coffee roasting here in Adelaide and a few interstate artisan roasters, we commenced roasting from ‘Bakers Edge’ in 2012 going on to launch our second coffee brand ‘EXTRACT BLACK COFFEE ROASTING CO.’ in 2016. However, a burning desire to travel Australia with our 3 sons turned to reality when we sold our retail ‘Bakers Edge Bakehouse and Coffee Roastery’ West Beach in March 2017 and travelled the remainder of year. End of 2017 we returned to Adelaide purchasing our urban farm in which to this day we passionately create our dream into reality!
After expanding our urban farm ‘TOTOKA’ in Adelaide Hills which we is proudly 100% organic, we sold our ‘EXTRACT BLACK COFFEE ROASTING CO.’ brand and large commercial roaster in 2023, now branded as TUF COFFEE  to match our other TUF products (TUF standing for Totoka Urban Farm) and only roasting boutique quanitities for our few select small organic stockists, experiences, villa, shindigs and gate sales. Our passion for organic produce flows through to our coffee, hence we ONLY roast Certified Organic COFFEE, reflecting the essence of coffee…seasonal and so many profiles!  We try and be as gentle to our beautiful earth as possible and recycle/reuse…our bulk buy ‘rebound buckets’ and fully reusable retail, compostable packaging. We may be young in our business at Totoka Urban Farm (TUF) but we are ‘old’ IN business…we understand through our experiences how various businesses can work and how we wish to evolve ‘TUF’ is with a very personal touch!
We also offer a selection of ‘MASTERCLASSES’ from crop to cup online FUNDAMENTALS to BARISTA masterclass to TASTING experiences. We also offer business mentoring, educational mentoring and more, all of which is ‘detailed’ here throughout our farm website.
Now don’t fall asleep, this is actually theory made interesting! From extensive experience as educators, we have learnt that prior knowledge will strengthen the practical learning experience of a topic, in this case ALL THINGS COFFEE! BUT, also from experience, we do not believe in just standing in front of you during a ‘day training’ and talking you through this for 3hours! So… sit back, relax in your own comforts and take your time to go through each journey as we have meticulously created the theory in sequential order of the CROP TO CUP process. We have included videos from the internet that can beautifully depict what we are explaining, as well as further information from us the roasters here in Adelaide Hills! By the end of this theory you will be ‘chomping at the bit’ for our ‘practical’ masterclasses! IF you live outside Adelaide, we welcome you to journey to us and happily will create a ‘weekend’ package of practicals so email anytime for quotes! 
We thank you for journeying with us on all things COFFEE and remember you are more than welcome to reach out via email, for any questions regarding this online Fundamentals Experience.


The below journeys are in order of crop to cup process. Ensure you click and watch all the links, as having a visual on the coffee processes is intriguing!

JOURNEY #1: Coffee Tree

So let’s start at the beginning…the actual PLANT!
DID you know??? Coffee is actually a FRUIT!
Yes it is…in fact a coffee cherry tree except the ‘flesh’ as we know cherries to be, is sour and inedible. The coffee itself is the SEED or as we know it, the BEAN!
Just like any other fruit tree, there are different varieties that grow much better in climates with high altitude, humidity, heat and limited cold winters! With different climates all around the world, every country has their own harvests and season timeframes.
So with this is all mind you may have heard the term ‘Robusta’ or ‘Arabica’ used?
Robusta is used mainly for instant coffee as such a substandard type of fruit. A limited amount of roasters will use cheap robusta to ‘top’ up their blends. We have only come across a few in Australia that do this, but once you have learnt all the below you will know what to look out for!
Arabica is the superior variety in which specialty coffee roasters like us at Extract Black Coffee Roasting Co. take pride in only roasting.
There are in fact a few more varieties than just ARABICA and ROBUSTA as explained perfectly by Wikipedia (where would we be without it!)…
“Although not as commercially viable as Arabica or Robusta,[16] other species of coffee exist and contain unique varieties. These include Kapeng barako or Café Baraco, (English: Barako coffee), a Liberica variety grown in the Philippines, particularly in the provinces of Batangas and Cavite. It was introduced during the period of Spanish colonization and the Philippines quickly rose to become the 4th largest producer of coffee in the early 19th century. However, production was cut short due to “coffee rust” infestation.[16] Coffea charrieriana is a caffeine-free coffee found in Cameroon.[17]”
To go into all the varieties of above is not necessary so to break it down easiest is the following short video on the technical visual differences between Arabica vs Robusta coffee: 2mins

JOURNEY #2: Variety of Trees

Following on from Journey #1 with the plant varieties, this video below clearly details the difference between coffee varietals when using the beans for quality coffee: 7mins

JOURNEY #3: Organic Coffee

TUF COFFEE is ONLY Certified Organic coffee.


Once coffee is shipped into Australia, if larvae is detected, non-organic beans are treated with methyl bromide (40g/m³ for 3 hours at 21°C and above) or in the case of ORGANIC, coffees are put into cold storage at -18°C to kill the larvae. It is then released to the purchaser, which in our case we use multiple coffee merchants based in Australia, since we source organic single origins from all around the world.
Extract Black roastery is located on our own urban farm in Adelaide Hills which we are proudly 100% organic. Zero chemical sprays (yep we weed by hand). Our passion for organic produce flows through to our coffee, hence only organic coffee for us!
We appreciate how the organic coffee is farmed and happily pay a little more for Organics, as explained in the video below Organic vs Non-Organic: 6mins
An additional note to ORGANIC lifestyles, is the elimination of harmful chemicals such as ‘Methyl Bromide’ (CH3Br). It is a colourless, odourless, non-flammable gas although originally a natural substance, can now also be commercially altered for applications. It is mainly used as a fumigant and in presticides. I highly recommend the investigation of ‘Methyl Bromide’ so you are aware when consuming ‘non-organic’ foods, what you are truly consuming.
We believe at Totoka that paying for certified Coffee, fruit, vegetables and in fact staying as organic as possible, we are giving our immune systems the best possible chance at maintaining optimal health.

JOURNEY #4: Single Origin

TUF COFFEE ONLY roasts SINGLE ORIGIN coffee. Why? Well this article from Forbes, is a must read until the absolute end…
“…if your corner shop can produce a good single origin espresso, that’s a clear sign your barista is paying close attention”.
One step prior to this, US the roasters, are paying EVEN closer attention to the exotic tastes that every origin, every season offers! We believe from experience, single origin coffee is at its purest and most aromatic form which tells the story of that season’s harvest. In every single origin, the profiles fill your senses with an overwhelming aromatic burst of brilliance.  This is the very reason we must share our love of single origin coffee!

JOURNEY #5: Fairtrade

We are often asked “do we buy direct from the farmers”.
Short answer is ‘no”.
Firstly there is absolutely ZERO organic coffee grown in Australia currently. Coffee is grown north of Australia however none is organic.
Secondly, it is not possible for us to buy from so many farmers worldwide since we adore drinking SINGLE ORIGIN organic coffees as the flavour profiles are crazy awesome just in one single origin. So we buy from a merchant here in Australia that stocks both organic and Fairtrade.
Currently Fairtrade is the ‘best’ known way we can ensure our money is shipped to the hands of the farmer more fairly than non fair-trade means via merchants. We feel by ensuring we buy from a certified Fairtrade merchant, we are doing our best to ensure the farmers are paid a fair price for their amazing produce and efforts. 
Due to being only a small business, we do not pay for a license to display the Fairtrade logo (below) and to be a part of the audit process. We therefore have a space between our words Fair Trade which is stating our commitment to only source from ethical Fairtrade merchants that are audited by the below Fairtrade organisation of Australia and New Zealand.
We are fortunate to have a beautiful selection of at least 6 origins at any given time in which are show cased at the practicals!
For more information head over to:

JOURNEY #6: Washed Process

The next part of the crop to cup journey after the coffee is picked is the washing and drying of the beans for export. The video below is an awesome explanation of the 1 of 2 processes: washed.

JOURNEY #7: Wet or Semi-Washed Process

The video below is an another awesome explanation, this time of the 2nd processes: ‘Wet’ or also known as ‘Semi-Washed’.
Filmed in SUMATRA: 4mins

JOURNEY #8: Process

The final part of understanding the processing of the bean before exporting is in this longer video. It includes their cupping process as they grade their own beans before export! The merchants we use here in Australia also grade the bean upon arrival and provide cupping notes which is detailed in the next journey.
The following video explains beautifully the ‘PROCESSING’ including cupping in KENYA: 21mins
I will note that at times we found it a little difficult to understand the strong accent of the speaker however he was super informative and was too good. Worth the watch!


TUF COFFEE only purchases green beans from registered ‘SWISS WATER’.
At Swiss Water “We use only water, temperature, and time to gently remove caffeine, while preserving all the coffee’s original characteristics. Our seal means you’re getting the very best cup of decaf, free of chemicals or residual processing flavors” (
For valuable step by step process direct from Swiss Water themselves check it out, direct link below.…/coffee-decaffeination…
Currently we are roasting PERU but this can change from season to season if PERU available but we do happen to have a love for the Decaff PERU.

JOURNEY #10: Cupping & Aroma Wheel

This is where coffee gets excitingly technical…and most think it is just a bean!
It is so much more than a bean and there is more!
CUPPING based on the AROMA wheel! Like wine…coffee has its own unique aromas and are scaled for roasters.
Below are 2 lovely, easy to watch videos explaining cupping process.

JOURNEY #11: Scoring Coffee

After learning of the cupping process in its entirety and how it is scaled on the aroma wheel, it will be hard to drink anything less than specialty coffee!
So what is Specialty COFFEE again?
Answer: Coffee with a ‘CUPPING’ SCORE of 85+
How does the scoring work. This fab video is sensationally explained (except that specialty is NOW 85+ she states 80): 18mins
Below is the official lexicon used for scaling coffee upon cupping.

JOURNEY #12: EB Roastery

Our Roastery…where the MAGIC happens!
​Roasting Coffee is a chemical reaction to the coffee seed by ‘applying’ heat @ the optimal time @ the optimal temperature @ the optimal stages throughout the roasting process, to finish with a perfectly dried, aromatic COFFEE BEAN full of exciting profiles!
TUF COFFEE is a standout coffee, due to combining all our life experiences and passionately using it in all aspects COFFEE! Roasting ‘LIGHT’ for all our organic and fairtrade single origin coffees, showcasing the individual plethora of profiles each seasonal bean offers!  Every roaster has their flare…ALL are masters that take immense pride in every roast, always crafting their art…every bean, every crop presents an exciting new aroma profile.
Roasters all roast differently, hence why we each have our favourite coffee brand for we all have own varying taste buds! We are fortunate we have the most amazing coffee roasters here in SA & Australia!  TUF COFFEE is home up at Coromandel East on our beautiful 22acre property. ORGANIC roasts of Brasil, Ethopian, Indonesian, Nicaragua, Colombia, Mexican and Swiss Water Peru to name a few, we artisan roast to continually enhance the coffee profiles of each origin’s harvest! 
Two points of difference is our passion in nurturing the earth thus change agents of how coffee is supplied and what/how we roast since we only roast to each and every order! Enjoy as we take on a journey of a small batch specialty roast up at the TUFroastery!

JOURNEY #13: The Art of Roasting...Stages of Roasting!

As mentioned in Journey #12 roasting coffee is a chemical reaction to the coffee seed by ‘applying’ heat @ the optimal time @ the optimal temperature @ the optimal stages throughout the roasting process, to finish with a perfectly dried, aromatic COFFEE BEAN full of exciting profiles!


To add much more depth to this, ROASTING IS AN ART! It is Artisan, based on multiple senses when roasting. Yes the modern day roasters are all hooked up to computer software, heck even our vintage roaster was restored with this compatibility, however we still ROAST WITH ART, which is using our senses.
What does this all mean?
There are multiple stages during the roasting process however as in Journey #12 we have broken it down to 7 definitive stages. Times are approximate based on green bean moisture level:
1/ Green – dried but NOT roasted
2/ Drying – 160-120degreesC – drops in temp @ 0-10mins
3/ Yellowing – 130degrees C @ 10mins
4/ Cinnamon – 160degrees C @ 16mins
5/ LIGHT Roast/First Crack – 197-199degrees C @ 20-22mins
6/ MEDIUM Roast/Second Crack – 220-225degrees C
7/ DARK Roast/Second Crack – 240degrees C+ – FIRE zone!
Both of the second crack stage temperatures are reached by setting the top temperature higher by increasing the heat throughout the roasting process.
Coffee Roasted needs to be rested 24hours to develop the flavours as during this first 24hours, CO2 is released which was created during the roasting process. After this time, coffee is PERFECT and a journey to continually taste the weeks following as the flavour takes on its own indivudality from every single roast!
So lets take a closer look into the individual stages of roasting and the science behind the flavours developing!
1/ Green – dried but NOT roasted
Optimal moisture level for green beans 8-12% as this determines the drop temperature and roasting times between stages.
2/ Drying – 160-120degreesC – drops in temp @ 0-10mins
When at temperature 160degrees C – the green beans are dropped into the roasting drum from hopper at top. The temperature will drop down to approx 120degrees C as it dries and gradually rises back up to move into next stage.
During the drying process high levels of acids, sugars, proteins and caffeine are evidently tasted and unpaletable! Always fun to try this when at a tasting masterclass!
3/ Yellowing – 130degrees C @ 10mins
Once beans have started to ‘YELLOW’, this indicates that the moisture in the beans is now at 0%. The coffee is now developing throughout the whole bean from the slow rise in heat rather than a fast rise.
4/ Cinnamon – 160degrees C @ 16mins
Again this stage is based on the ‘visual’ appearance of the bean, this being a cinnamon colour. The bean is still unpaletable however this is the stage of ‘MAILLARD REACTION’, a complex process of the reaction between reducing sugars and proteins by the impact of heat.
5/ LIGHT Roast/First Crack – 197-199degrees C @ 20-22mins
As the temperature rises the sugars and amino acids react creating amazing aromas that are unique to EVERY SINGLE CROP EVERY HARVEST!
Colours form to a light brown and the beans soon start to ‘pop and crack’ indicating FIRST CRACK. The first crack is such a tiny window before the next stage and temperatures are monitored intently so that the heat does not rise too quick forcing second crack prematurely.
This stage is critical to final flavour for US here at EXTRACT BLACK COFFEE ROASTING CO. as we roast ‘LIGHT’!
Every roaster puts their own flair into every roast and we are all masters that take immense pride in our roasts, always crafting our art, always learning as every bean from every crop presents an exciting new aromatic profile!
6/ MEDIUM Roast/Second Crack – 220-225degrees C
This stage is obtained by increasing the FINAL stage of the drop temperature by increasing the heat throughout the roasting process. Due to this sugars are roasted more which starts to mask the bean profiles and aromas.
7/ DARK Roast/Second Crack – 240degrees C+ – FIRE zone!
We can tell you from experience this is definately fire zone. It is also the roast where sugars are ‘burnt’ therefore the taste of BITTERNESS is clearly overpowering any of the precious profiles that the bean once offered.
As this is personal preference, many roasters still roast dark as it is a misconception that STRONG coffee is BITTER. This is actually the opposite! Coffee has been so dried out by this stage of roasting that oils are pushed to surface and are noticed in the grinder hoppers and bags.
Slower roasts allow time for the acids and sugars in the beans to break down creating less acidity in the end result.
All machines roasts differently hence we all have our favourite coffee roasters around the world!
Every human has their own unique taste buds and with so many amazing roasters in the South Australia, Australia and the world, why not visit us all and ENJOY!

JOURNEY #14: The 2 Rule

2 Rule…our mantra as we believe ‘you can sell anything once’ so by maintaining maximum freshness in our roasted coffee, we sell lots and lots and lots and lots as well as drinking lots and lots and lots of our own! 🤣
So what do we mean by the 2 RULE?
2 years GREEN:
Coffee continues to dry out when stored bagged/green and when roasting optimal moisture level is 11%. As this drops the coffee also loses aroma profiles. So as a roaster we wish to keep our stock levels up but not so that it sits for long!
2 months ROASTED:
Coffee once roasted will also loose aroma profiles and boldness when sitting longer than 2 months. THIS IS ALSO unopened time frame as more oxygen to the bean, quicker the ‘oxidation’ process occurs.
Oxidation is when a chain reaction occurs in the presence of oxygen, responsible for the deterioration of food products, including off-flavors and off-odours.
2 weeks OPENED:
Once the sealed container/bag of freshly (within 2 months) of roasted coffee is OPENED…consume within 2 weeks for maximum freshness again due to the oxidation process.
2 minutes GROUND:
We DO NOT sell ground coffee fullstop. Coffee MUST be extracted within 2mins of grinding for maximum freshness as once ground the oxidation process is fast and futile.
LASTLY, do not store coffee in the fridge or freezer as the moisture affects the coffee likewise direct sunlight. Just store in airtight container/Jar in pantry.

JOURNEY #15: Why Grind FRESH!

As stated in the 2 RULE above…we DO NOT SELL ground coffee due to the oxidation process compromising the integrity of our roasting efforts at TUF COFFEE.


In all of our MASTERCLASSES, we discuss the importance of grinding fresh, giving all participants a coffee made from week old coffee GROUND plus a FRESHLY GROUND coffee. The taste difference speaks for itself so highly recommend you doing this experiment at home. As long as you keep all the other variables the same, you will be able to compare. EG boiled water, same extraction method and same quantity of coffee.
Lastly, we stand to the fact that as long as you are grinding FRESH, even the cheapest department store grinder is 100% better than buying pre-ground coffee. Please don’t feel you must head out and buy a commercial grinder or even a $200 grinder for home use. We have travelled Australia with a French Press (plunger) and a $20 ‘homebrand’ Grinder (that still lives on in our roastery🖤) as freshly ground coffee to us meant more than getting the grind right, or even worse buying ground coffee.
Freshly ground coffee is also more forgiving of the extraction method. EG if your grind is too course or too fine or timings wrong on an espresso machine, freshly ground is kinder to your taste buds!

JOURNEY #16: Technical bits and bobs!

This awesome legend on TEDx, a biochemistry student and passionate barista, explains so simply what used to take us much longer during our BARISTA MASTERCLASSES!
WHY reinvent the wheel we say!


We whole heartedly hope you have enjoyed the theory made interesting. We thank you for learning what we are so passionate about.
Please ask any final questions before exiting this Fundamentals Experience via email. We love helping others grow their coffee knowledge!
We look forward to seeing you at one of our IN-PERSON Experiences.
If you are here for the BARISTA CORE SKILLS, you have now completed the theory component and we will definately be meeting you soon for your 2hr practical experience at our roastery, Totoka Urban Farm.
Until then, happy coffee days!
☕️Adrianne & David

 A warm thank you from us here at Totoka Urban Farm. 

It has been a privaledge to journey with you on all things coffee and what TUF COFFEE is all about.
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